Engage the entire team in caring for patients

Implementing team-based care

  • Christine Sinsky, MD AMA, Medical Associates Clinic and Health Plans
  • Ellie Rajcevich, MPA AMA
CME Credits: 0.5

How will this module help me implement team-based care?

  1. Illustrate the impact of the practice model
  2. Provide step-by-step implementation guidance
  3. Offer resources and documents that can assist with implementation

CME accreditation information 

Increasing administrative responsibilities—due to regulatory pressures and evolving payment and care delivery models—reduce the amount of time physicians spend delivering direct patient care. Team-based care allows physicians to truly connect with their patients by involving more of the practice staff in patient care, including handling patients’ questions, calls and messages. Utilizing a physician-led, team-based care approach ensures everyone is aware of the patient’s important health information. Practices will see increased efficiency and productivity as a result of implementing team-based care.

Implementing team-based care
Release Date: October 2015
End Date: October 2019

Objectives

At the end of this activity, participants will be able to:

  1. Describe the components of the team-based care model.
  2. Increase communication among the team, practice and patients.
  3. Evaluate how the team-based care model could be implemented in their practice.

Target Audience

This activity is designed to meet the educational needs of practicing physicians.

Statement of Need

Team-based care involves the physician as the champion of the patient’s care team along with other practice staff members who share in patient-care responsibilities. The team-based care approach allows physicians to spend more time communicating face-to-face with patients during visits and provide meaningful medical care. By implementing a team-based care model, practices will see an increase in efficiency and productivity, with physicians able to see a greater number of patients during a clinic session. This module will describe different elements of team-based care, so practices can implement this powerful health care delivery model.

Statement of Competency

This activity is designed to address the following ABMS/ACGME competencies: practice-based learning and improvement, interpersonal and communications skills, professionalism, systems-based practice and also address interdisciplinary teamwork and quality improvement.

Accreditation Statement

The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

Credit Designation Statement

The American Medical Association designates this enduring material for a maximum of 0.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Claiming Your CME Credit

To claim AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™, you must 1) view the module content in its entirety, 2) successfully complete the quiz answering 4 out of 5 questions correctly and 3) complete the evaluation.

Planning Committee

  • Alejandro Aparicio, MD, Director, Medical Education Programs, AMA
  • Rita LePard, CME Program Committee, AMA
  • Anita Miriyala, Graduate Intern, Professional Satisfaction and Practice Sustainability, AMA
  • Ellie Rajcevich, MPA, Practice Development Advisor, Professional Satisfaction and Practice Sustainability, AMA
  • Sam Reynolds, MBA, Director, Professional Satisfaction and Practice Sustainability, AMA
  • Christine Sinsky, MD, Vice President, Professional Satisfaction, American Medical Association and Internist, Medical Associates Clinic and Health Plans, Dubuque, IA
  • Krystal White, MBA, Program Administrator, Professional Satisfaction and Practice Sustainability, AMA

Faculty

  • Ann Lindsay, MD, Co-Director Stanford Coordinated Care
  • Jeff Panzer, MD, Medical Director, Iora Health
  • Sara J. Pastoor, MD, MHA, Family Physician
  • Bruce Bagley, MD, Senior Advisor, Professional Satisfaction and Practice Sustainability, AMA
  • Ellie Rajcevich, MPA, Practice Development Advisor, Professional Satisfaction and Practice Sustainability, AMA
  • Sam Reynolds, MBA, Director, Professional Satisfaction and Practice Sustainability, AMA
  • Christine Sinsky, MD, Vice President, Professional Satisfaction, American Medical Association and Internist, Medical Associates Clinic and Health Plans, Dubuque, IA

About the Professional Satisfaction, Practice Sustainability Group

The AMA Professional Satisfaction and Practice Sustainability group has been tasked with developing and promoting innovative strategies that create sustainable practices. Leveraging findings from the 2013 AMA/RAND Health study, “Factors affecting physician professional satisfaction and their implications for patient care, health systems and health policy,” and other research sources, the group developed a series of practice transformation strategies. Each has the potential to reduce or eliminate inefficiency in broader office-based physician practices and improve health outcomes, increase operational productivity and reduce health care costs.

Disclosure Statement

The content of this activity does not relate to any product of a commercial interest as defined by the ACCME; therefore, neither the planners nor the faculty have relevant financial relationships to disclose.

Media Types

This activity is available to learners through Internet and Print.

Hardware/software Requirements

Adobe Flash 9.0.115 or above
Audio speakers or headphones
Screen resolution of 800X600 or higher
MS Internet Explorer 8.0 or higher, Firefox, Opera, Safari, etc.
Adobe Reader 5.0 or higher

References

  1. Bodenheimer T, Bauer L, Olayiwola JN, Syer S. RN Role Reimagined: How Empowering Registered Nurses Can Improve Primary Care. http://www.chcf.org/publications/2015/08/rn-role-reimagined. Accessed August 12, 2015.

Building team culture references:

  1. Mundt MP, Gilchrist VJ, Fleming MF, Zakletskaia LI, Tuan W-J. Effects of primary care team social networks on quality of care and costs for patients with cardiovascular disease. Ann Fam Med. 2015;13(2):139-148.
  2. Woolley AW, Chabris CF, Pentland A, Hashmi N, Malone TW. Evidence for a collective intelligence factor in the performance of human groups. Science. 2010;330(6004):686-688.
  3. Logan D, King J, Fischer-Wright H. Tribal Leadership: Leveraging Natural Groups to Build a Thriving Organization. New York, NY: HarperBusiness; 2011.
  4. Hochman M. Improvement happens: team-based primary care, an interview with Stuart Pollack. J Gen Int Med. 2015;30(4):521-528.
  5. The Team Development Measure. PeaceHealth website. http://www.peacehealth.org/about-peacehealth/medical-professionals/eugene-springfield-cottage-grove/team-measure/Pages/measure.aspx. Accessed April 17, 2015.
  6. US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture. http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/quality-patient-safety/patientsafetyculture/medical-office/index.html. Published February 2015. Accessed April 17, 2015.
  7. Newbell B, Schafer D, Pfenninger JL, et al. 10 big ideas that could make your practice better. Fam Pract Manag. 2008;15(8):33-41.
  8. Icebreakers: the best games & activities. Icebreakers website. http://www.icebreakers.ws/. Accessed April 17, 2015.
  9. Institute for Patient- and Family-Centered Care. Creating Patient and Family Advisory Councils. http://www.ipfcc.org/advance/Advisory_Councils.pdf. Published 1998. Updated 2002. Accessed April 17, 2015. 
  10. Toussaint J. A management leadership and board road map to transforming care for patients. Front Health Serv Manage. 2013;29(3):3-15.
  11. Truly human leadership: Bob Chapman at TEDxScottAFB [video]. Illinois: TedxScottAFB; May 30, 2012. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=njn-lIEv1LU. Accessed April 17, 2015.
  12. Nutting PA, Crabtree BF, Miller WL, Stange KC, Stewart E, Jaén C. Transforming physician practices to patient-centered medical homes: lessons from the National Demonstration Project. Health Aff (Millwood). 2011;30(3):439-445.
  13. Woolley M, Malone TW, Chabris CF. Why some teams are smarter than others. The New York Times. January 16, 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/18/opinion/sunday/why-some-teams-are-smarter-than-others.html. Accessed April 17, 2015

Expanded rooming and discharge protocols references:

  1. Anderson P, Halley MD. A new approach to making your doctor-nurse team more productive. Fam Pract Manag. 2008;15(7):35-40.
  2. Blash L, Dower C, Chapman S. High Plains Community Health Center—Redesign Expands Medical Assistant Roles. San Francisco, CA: Center for the Health Professions at the University of California, San Francisco; 2010. Revised November 2011. https://healthforce.ucsf.edu/sites/healthforce.ucsf.edu/files/publication-pdf/8.1%202010-11_High_Plains_Community_Health_Center_Redesign_Expands_Medical_Assistant_Roles.pdf. Accessed April 2, 2014.
  3. Bodenheimer T, Laing BY. The teamlet model of primary care. Ann Fam Med. 2007;5(5):457-461.
  4. Bodenheimer T, Willard-Grace R, Ghorob A. Expanding the roles of medical assistants: who does what in primary care? JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(7):1025-1026.
  5. Herzberg F. One more time: how do you motivate employees? Harvard Business Review. January 2003. https://hbr.org/2003/01/one-more-time-how-do-you-motivate-employees. Accessed April 2, 2014.
  6. McCarthy BD, Yood MU, Bolton MB, Boohaker EA, MacWilliam CH, Young MJ. Redesigning primary care processes to improve the offering of mammography. The use of clinical protocols by nonphysicians. J Gen Intern Med. 1997;12(6):357-363.
  7. Patel MS, Arron MJ, Sinsky TA, et al. Estimating the staffing infrastructure for a patient-centered medical home. Am J Manag Care. 2013;19(6):509-516.
  8. Sinsky CA, Sinsky TA, Althaus D, Tranel J, Thiltgen M. 'Core teams': nurse-physician partnerships provide patient-centered care at an Iowa practice. Health Aff. 2010;29(5):966-968.
  9. Sinsky CA, Willard-Grace R, Schutzbank AM, Sinsky TA, Margolius D, Bodenheimer T. In search of joy in practice: a report of 23 high-functioning primary care practices. Ann Fam Med. 2013;11(3):272-278.
  10. Yarnall KS, Østbye T, Krause KM, Pollak KI, Gradison M, Michener JL. Family physicians as team leaders: "time" to share the care. Prev Chronic Dis. 2009;6(2):A59.
  11. Elevating the Role of the Medical/Clinical Assistant: Maximizing Team-Based Care in the Patient-Centered Medical Home. Seattle, WA: Safety Net Medical Home Initiative, a project of The Commonwealth Fund, Qualis Health and MacColl Institute at the Group Health Cooperative; August 2011. http://www.mainequalitycounts.org/image_upload/PCMH%20Pilot%20Expansion%20Launch_Elevating%20The%20Role%20Of%20The%20
    Medical%20and%20Clinical%20Assistant_Safety%20Net%20Medical%20Home%20Initiative_2011.pdf
    . Accessed April 2, 2014.

Pre-visit laboratory testing references:

  1. Baron R. What's keeping us so busy in primary care? A snapshot from one practice. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:495-496.
  2. Crocker B, Lewandrowski EL, Lewandrowski N, Gregory K, Lewandrowski K. Patient satisfaction with point-of-care laboratory testing: report of a quality improvement program in an ambulatory practice of an academic medical center. Clin Chim Acta. 2013;424:8-11.
  3. Crocker JB, Lee-Lewandrowski E, Lewandrowski N, Baron J, Gregory K, Lewandrowski K. Implementation of point-of-care testing in an ambulatory practice of an academic medical center. Am J Clin Pathol. 2014;14(5):640-646.
  4. Casalino L, Nicholson S, Gans DN, et al. What does it cost physician practices to interact with health insurance plans? Health Aff. 2009;28(4):533-543.
  5. Day J, Scammon DL, Kim J, et al. Quality, satisfaction and financial efficiency associated with elements of primary care practice transformation: preliminary findings. Ann Fam Med. 2013;11(suppl 1):S50-S59.
  6. Farber J, Siu A, Bloom P. How much time do physicians spend providing care outside of office visits? Ann Intern Med. 2007;147:693-698.
  7. Gottschalk A, Flocke SA. Time spent in face-to-face patient care and work outside the examination room. Ann Fam Med. 2005;3(6): 488-493.
  8. Hunt VL, Chaudhry R, Stroebel RJ, North F. Does pre-ordering tests enhance the value of the periodic examination? Study design – Process implementation with retrospective chart review. BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11:216.
  9. Kabcenell AI, Langley J, Hupke C. Innovations in Planned Care. IHI Innovation Series white paper. Cambridge, MA: Institute for Healthcare Improvement; 2006. http://www.ihi.org/knowledge/Pages/IHIWhitePapers/InnovationsinPlannedCareWhitePaper.aspx. Accessed May 15, 2014.
  10. McAllister JW, Cooley WC, Van Cleave J, Boudreau AA, Kuhlthau K. Medical home transformation in pediatric primary care—what drives change? Ann Fam Med. 2013;11 (suppl 1):S90-S98.
  11. Montori VM, Dinneen SF, Gorman CA, et al; and Translation Project Investigator Group. The impact of planned care and a diabetes electronic management system on community-based diabetes care: the Mayo Health System Diabetes Translation Project. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(11):1952-1957.
  12. Moore LG. Escaping the tyranny of the urgent by delivering planned care. Fam Pract Manag. 2006;13(5):37-40.
  13. Schiff GD. Medical error: a 60-year-old man with delayed care for a renal mass. JAMA. 2011;305(18):1890-1898.
  14. Sinsky CA, Willard-Grace R, Schuztbank AM, Sinsky TA, Margolius D, Bodenheimer T. In search of joy in practice: a report of 23 high-functioning primary care practices. Ann Fam Med. 2013;11(3):272-278.
  15. Stone EG, Morton SC, Hulscher ME, et al. Interventions that increase use of adult immunization and cancer screening services: a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136(9):641-651.

Pre-visit planning references:

  1. Baron R. What's keeping us so busy in primary care? A snapshot from one practice. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:495-496.
  2. Casalino L, Nicholson S, Gans DN, et al. What does it cost physician practices to interact with health insurance plans? Health Aff. 2009;28(4):533-543.
  3. Day J, Scammon DL, Kim J, et al. Quality, satisfaction and financial efficiency associated with elements of primary care practice transformation: preliminary findings. Ann Fam Med. 2013;11(suppl 1):S50-S59.
  4. Farber J, Siu A, Bloom P. How much time do physicians spend providing care outside of office visits? Ann Intern Med. 2007;147:693-698.
  5. Gottschalk A, Flocke SA. Time spent in face-to-face patient care and work outside the examination room. Ann Fam Med. 2005;3(6):488-493.
  6. Hunt VL, Chaudhry R, Stroebel RJ, North F. Does pre-ordering tests enhance the value of the periodic examination? Study design – Process implementation with retrospective chart review. BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11:216.
  7. Kabcenell AI, Langley J, Hupke C. Innovations in Planned Care. IHI Innovation Series white paper. Cambridge, MA: Institute for Healthcare Improvement; 2006. http://www.ihi.org/knowledge/Pages/IHIWhitePapers/InnovationsinPlannedCareWhitePaper.aspx. Accessed May 15, 2014.
  8. McAllister JW, Cooley WC, Van Cleave J, Boudreau AA, Kuhlthau K. Medical home transformation in pediatric primary care—what drives change? Ann Fam Med. 2013;11 (suppl 1):S90-S98.
  9. Montori VM, Dinneen SF, Gorman CA, et al; and Translation Project Investigator Group. The impact of planned care and a diabetes electronic management system on community-based diabetes care: the Mayo Health System Diabetes Translation Project. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(11):1952-1957.
  10. Moore LG. Escaping the tyranny of the urgent by delivering planned care. Fam Pract Manag. 2006;13(5):37-40.
  11. Sinsky CA, Willard-Grace R, Schuztbank AM, Sinsky TA, Margolius D, Bodenheimer T. In search of joy in practice: a report of 23 high-functioning primary care practices. Ann Fam Med. 2013;11(3):272-278.
  12. Stone EG, Morton SC, Hulscher ME, et al. Interventions that increase use of adult immunization and cancer screening services: a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136(9):641-651.
  13. Crocker B, Lewandrowski EL, Lewandrowski N, Gregory K, Lewandrowski K. Patient satisfaction with point-of-care laboratory testing: report of a quality improvement program in an ambulatory practice of an academic medical center. Clin Chim Acta. 2013;424:8-11.
  14. Crocker JB, Lee-Lewandrowski E, Lewandrowski N, Baron J, Gregory K, Lewandrowski K. Implementation of point-of-care testing in an ambulatory practice of an academic medical center. Am J Clin Path. 2014;142(5):640-646.

Synchronized prescription renewals references:

  1. Baron R. What is keeping us busy in primary care? A snapshot from one practice. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:495-496.
  2. Choundry NK, Fischer MA, Avorn J, et al. The implications of therapeutic complexity on adherence to cardiovascular medications. Arch Intern Med. 2011;171(9): 814-822.
  3. Devine EB, Hollingworth W, Hansen RN, et al. Electronic prescribing at the point of care: a time–motion study in the primary care setting. Health Serv Res. 2010;45(1):152-171.
  4. Foster DG, Hulett D, Bradsberry M, Darney P, Policar M. Number of oral contraceptive pill packages dispensed and subsequent unintended pregnancies. Obstet Gynec. 2011;117(3):566-572.
  5. Sinsky CA, Sinsky TA. Bundling prescription refills. Fam Pract Manag. 2013;20(1):9-10.
  6. Friedberg M, Chen P, Van Busum KR, et al. Factors affecting physician professional satisfaction and their implications for patient care, health systems, and health policy. Washington, DC: RAND Corporation; 2013. http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR400/RR439/RAND_RR439.pdf. Accessed April 2, 2014.
  7. Murphy DR, Reis B, Kadiyala H, et al. Electronic health record-based messages to primary care providers: valuable information or just noise? Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(3):283-285.
  8. Sinsky TA, Sinsky CA. A streamlined approach to prescription management. Fam Pract Manag. 2012;19(6):11-15.
  9. Wieczner J. The doctor won't take your call. Marketwatch. July 16, 2013. http://www.marketwatch.com/story/the-doctor-wont-take-your-call-2013-07-16. Accessed April 2, 2014.

Team documentation references:

  1. Ammann Howard K, Helé K, Salibi N, Wilcox S, Cohen M. Adapting EHR Scribe Model to Community Health Centers: The Experience of Shasta Community Health Center's Pilot. Berkley, CA: Blueshield of California Foundation; 2012. http://www.blueshieldcafoundation.org/publications/adapting-ehr-scribe-model-community-health-centers-experience-shasta-community-health-c. Accessed April 2, 2014.
  2. Anderson P, Halley MD. A new approach to making your doctor-nurse team more productive. Fam Pract Manag. 2008;15(7):35-40.
  3. Anderson P. What is team care medicine? [video]. Yorktown, VA: Team Care Medicine, LLC; August 20, 2013. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1dPNn2OUuaA. Accessed April 2, 2014.
  4. Arya R, Salovich DM, Ohman-Strickland P, Merlin MA. Impact of scribes on performance indicators in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2010;17(5):490-494.
  5. Bank AJ, Obetz C, Konrardy A, et al. Impact of scribes on patient interaction, productivity, and revenue in a cardiology clinic: a prospective study. ClinicoEcon Outcomes Res. 2013;5:399-406.
  6. Center for Excellence in Primary Care. Health Coaching website. http://cepc.ucsf.edu/health-coaching. Accessed April 2, 2014.
  7. Hafner K. A busy doctor's right hand, ever ready to type. The New York Times. January 12, 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/14/health/a-busy-doctors-right-hand-ever-ready-to-type.html?ref=katiehafner&_r=0. Accessed April 2, 2014
  8. Koshy S, Feustel PJ, Hong M, Kogan BA. Scribes in an ambulatory urology practice: patient and physician satisfaction. J Urol. 2010;184(1):258-262.
  9. Reuben DB, Knudsen J, Senelick W, Glazier E, Koretz BK. The effect of a physician partner program on physician efficiency and patient satisfaction. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(7):1190-1193.
  10. Sinsky CA, Sinsky TA. In search of Joy in practice: innovations from 23 high-performing primary care practices [video]. Washington, DC: Patient-Centered Primary Care Collaborative; June 28, 2013. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tKVl74Al_I0. Accessed April 2, 2014.
  11. Sinsky CA, Willard-Grace R, Schutzbank AM, Sinsky TA, Margolius D, Bodenheimer T. In search of joy in practice: a report of 23 high-functioning primary care practices. Ann Fam Med. 2013;11(3):272-278.
  12. Sinsky CA, Sinsky TA. Care by Design. Redstone Clinic Case Study. 2011.
  13. Sinsky CA. Office of the Future. Quincy Family Practice Case Study. 2011.
  14. Sinsky TA. Improving Access, Quality and Satisfaction With "Turbo Practice." Cleveland Clinic Case Study.
  15. Sinsky TA. Reconnecting With Patients Through Scribing. Allina Clinics Case Study. 2011.
  16. Sinsky TA. The Family Team Care model. Newport News Family Practice Case Study. 2011.
  17. Team Care Medicine v1 [video]. California: Sutter North Medical Foundation; November 4, 2013. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oBxHCkxnpgk. Accessed April 2, 2014.
  18. Hopkins K, Sinsky CA. Team-based care: saving time and improving efficiency. Fam Pract Manag. 2014;21(6):23-29.

Team huddles references:

  1. Rodriguez HP, Meredith LS, Hamilton AB, Yano EM, Rubenstein LV. Huddle up!: the adoption and use of structured team communication for VA medical home implementation. Health Care Manage Rev. 2014 Jul 15. [Epub ahead of print].
  2. Helfrich CD, Dolan ED, Simonetti J, et al. Elements of team-based care in a patient-centered medical home are associated with lower burnout among VA primary care employees. J Gen Intern Med. 2014;29(Suppl 2):S659-S666.
  3. Provost SM, Lanham HJ, Leykum LK, McDaniel RR Jr, Pugh J. Health care huddles: managing complexity to achieve high reliability. Health Care Manage Rev. 2015;40(1):2-12.
  4. Shunk R, Dulay M, Chou CL, Janson S, O'Brien BC. Huddle-coaching: a dynamic intervention for trainees and staff to support team-based care. Acad Med. 2014;89(2):244-250.
  5. Dingley C, Daugherty K, Derieg MK, Persing R. Improving patient safety through provider communication strategy enhancements. In: Henriksen K, Battles JB, Keyes MA, Grady ML, eds. Advances in Patient Safety: New Directions and Alternative Approaches, Vol. 3: Performance and Tools. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2008.
  6. Fogarty CT, Schultz S. Team huddles: the role of the primary care educator. Clin Teach. 2010;7(3):157-160.
  7. Stewart EE, Johnson BC. Huddles: improve office efficiency in mere minutes. Fam Pract Manag. 2007;14(6):27-29.
  8. Stout S, Klucznik C, Chevalier A, et al; Cambridge Health Alliance Team-Based Care Leadership Team. Implementation Guide and Toolkit. http://www.safetynetmedicalhome.org/sites/default/files/CHA-Teams-Guide.pdf. Accessed July 11, 2015.
  9. Kaiser Permanante. Huddle Power. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vvEiGPEFBLE. Accessed July 11, 2015.
  10. UC Davis Health System Team Huddles Patient Experience Model. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VxdG2_nZ2fc. Accessed July 11, 2015.
  11. Schutzbank A. Martin's Point Health Care, Evergreen Woods Practice, Bangor ME. http://www.abimfoundation.org/~/media/Foundation/Initiatives/Primary%20Care/Martins%20Point.ashx?la=en. Accessed July 11, 2015.
  12. UCSF Center for Excellence in Primary Care. Spotlight on Huddles. http://cepc.ucsf.edu/sites/cepc.ucsf.edu/files/Spotlight_on_Huddles_12-1226.pdf. Published June 5, 2012. Accessed July 11, 2015.
  13. UCSF Center for Excellence in Primary Care. Healthy Huddles. http://cepc.ucsf.edu/healthy-huddles. Accessed July 11, 2015.

Team meetings references:

  1. Trustees of Dartmouth College, Godfrey MM, Nelson EC, Batalden PB, Institute for Healthcare Improvement. Clinical microsystems: the place where patients, families and clinical teams meet. http://clinicalmicrosystem.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/outpatient-primary-care-workbook.doc. Published 2001. Accessed March 5, 2015.
  2. Chase SM, Nutting PA, Crabtree BF. How to solve problems in your practice with a new meeting approach. Fam Pract Manag. 2010;17(2):31-34.
  3. Stewart EE, Johnson BC. Improve office efficiency in mere minutes. Fam Pract Manag. 2007;14(6):27-29.
  4. Team meetings in a clinical environment [video]. Oakland, CA: California Healthcare Foundation; June 2009. http://www.chcf.org/publications/2009/06/video-on-team-meetings-in-a-clinical-environment. Accessed March 5, 2015.
  5. Best practice clinical innovation: team huddle communications and pre-visit team planning [video]. University of California, Davis Health System: Center for Health and Technology; 2010. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VxdG2_nZ2fc. Accessed March 5, 2015.
  6. Shenkel R. How to make your meetings more productive. Fam Pract Manag. 2003;10(7):59-60.
  7. Sinsky CA, Willard-Grace R, Schutzbank AM, Sinsky TA, Margolius D, Bodenheimer T. In search of joy in practice: a report of twenty-three high-functioning primary care practices. Ann Fam Med. 2013;11(3):272-278. 
  8. Sinsky CA, Sinsky TA, Althaus D, Tranel J, Thiltgen M. 'Core teams': nurse-physician partnerships provide patient-centered care at an Iowa practice. Health Aff. 2010;29(5):966-968.
  9. Lencioni P. Overcoming the Five Dysfunctions of Teams: A Field Guide for Leaders, Managers, and Facilitators, 1st ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2005.  
  10. Stout S, Klucznick C, Chevalier A, et al.; for the Cambridge Health Alliance Team-Based Care Leadership Team. Cambridge Health Alliance Model of Team-Based Care Implementation Guide and Toolkit. http://www.safetynetmedicalhome.org/sites/default/files/CHA-Teams-Guide.pdf. Accessed March 5, 2015.
  11. Lind C, Redditt V, Satterstrom P, et al. Cambridge Health Alliance Practice Improvement Team (PIT) Development Toolkit. http://www.improvingprimarycare.org/sites/default/files/topics/Team-Step6-Cambridge-Practice%20Improvement%20Team-Toolkit.pdf. Accessed March 5, 2015.
  12. Funk K and Davis M. Enhancing the role of the nurse in primary care: the RN "co-visit" model. J Gen Intern Med. 2015;30(12):1871-1873.

Introduction

In STEPS Forward, several modules describe individual elements of a team-based care model. In this module, we show how to bring all of these elements together.

What is team-based care?

Team-based care is a strategic redistribution of work among members of a practice team. In the model, all members of the physician-led team play an integral role in providing patient care. The physician (or in some circumstances a nurse practitioner or physician assistant) and a team of nurses and/or medical assistants (MAs) share responsibilities for better patient care. Common shared responsibilities include pre-visit planning and expanded intake activities, including reconciling medications, updating the patient’s history and collaborating with the patient to set the visit agenda. During the physician portion of the visit, the nurse, MA or documentation assistant scribes the visit, allowing the physician to have uninterrupted time with the patient. At the conclusion of the visit, the nurse or MA conducts essential care coordination activities, such as arranging follow-up visits or ordering requested testing and referrals.

Burn out prevention introduction

Why team-based care?

Physician-led team-based care engages a greater number of staff in patient care and affords physicians the time they need to listen, think deeply and develop relationships with patients. Team members are aware of the patient’s health history and conditions and are thus better equipped to answer patients’ between-visit questions, calls and messages. As a result, all members of the physician-led team feel engaged in their key role of caring for the patient.

Ann Lindsay, MD

We have MA care coordinators who are responsible for their own panel of patients.
They work under protocol to refill meds, perform routine health maintenance and chronic disease monitoring tests and triage calls and e-mails from patients. They scribe visits, coach patients about action plans and facilitate referrals. It is working really well for all of us. The team is better than ever.

Ann Lindsay, MD, Stanford Coordinated Care

STEPS to implementing team-based care

  1. Engage the change team
  2. Determine the team composition
  3. Choreograph workflows to reflect the new model of care
  4. Increase communication among the team, practice and patients
  5. Use a gradual approach to implement the model
  6. Optimize the care model
  1. 1

    Engage the change team

    Bring together a multi-disciplinary change team of nurses, MAs, physicians, administrators and information technology staff members with a leader who has enough authority within the practice or organization to empower the process. Consider involving patients on the change team as well.

    In addition to building the change team, assemble a smaller team that will pilot the team-based care model in your practice. This pilot team may consist of one physician or a pod of physicians. The physicians and team members who are involved in the pilot should also be members of the larger change team.

  1. 2

    Determine the team composition

    Design the model of care that will meet the needs of your patients and team. Consider which current team members could learn a new skillset and fulfill a new role on the physician-led team. Your practice model may include a behavioral health specialist, health coach, care manager, care coordinator, nurse practitioner, physician assistant or reception staff. Depending on the physician’s specialty, athletic trainers or ophthalmic technicians may also be vital team members.

    While designing the team composition, start to consider which team could pilot the model. Ensure that the pilot team(s) consists of physicians and supporting team members who are eager to transform the clinic to a team-based care model. They should be trailblazers, trendsetters and good communicators who are willing to put in extra effort to prepare for the transition and continue to develop the new model once it is underway.

  • Our biggest problem is access to care. Will team-based care help with this?

    Yes! When the team is working efficiently, there is greater capacity to see more patients. One physician who recently implemented team-based care was able to re-open his practice to new patients after it had been closed for more than twelve years. Another physician increased his daily patient access from 21 to 28 patients.

  • What should we do if our nurses don’t want to work as scribes?

    The nurse’s role in team-based care is not “scribing.” It can be better thought of as a “nurse co-visit” where the nurse manages preventive care and much of the chronic illness monitoring under established protocols and begins to explore any acute symptoms that the patient may have. The physician provides oversight and additional medical decision-making. This advanced team-care role offers nurses an opportunity to continuously learn and make more meaningful contributions than they would in a traditional triage or prescription refill position.1

    Some practices have trained MAs to scribe visits and manage prevention and illness monitoring by protocols or standing orders. A nurse may supervise a group of advanced MAs. Work with your practice to identify which existing team members could work in desired capacities to implement the new model, and plan to continue to develop roles and training as the new model is adopted. Individual roles and scope of practice should be defined in accordance with your state’s laws.

  • One of our pilot physicians has concerns about the adaptability of his team. Do you have any suggestions?

    Adopting a new practice model requires adaptability, openness and innovation. It is natural for providers and staff to feel uncomfortable with change. Some people are so busy working in a less functional model of care that it is hard to find time to imagine and plan for a better way. Strong support from a project champion high in the organization is critical. Ensuring that everyone who will be impacted by the change has an opportunity to shape the change increases the chance of success. Also, try to have a little fun along the way.

Estimate Savings From Team-Based Care

This calculator enables you to estimate the cost and benefit of implementing team-based care in your practice. Enter the amount of time per day spent by physicians on activities that could be eliminated by implementing team-based care and the estimated cost of the specialist. The result will be daily physician time saved and annual savings of implementing team-based care.

Calculate your savings

Your Practice

$
/min

Cost of physician's time

$
/min

Cost of non-physician clinical staff time

days/year

Clinic days per year

Estimated time spent on tasks that could be delegated or eliminated

 
min/day

Estimated physician time More info

min/day

Estimated staff time More info

 

Financial savings with team-based care

$118,800

Gross physician
annual savings

+
$26,400

Gross non-physician clinical
staff annual savings

=
$145,200

Net practice savings

Source: AMA. Practice transformation series: implementing team-based care. 2015.

  1. 3

    Choreograph workflows to reflect the new model of care

    Determine your new team-based care workflows. Remember, you are creating your ideal future state, so think outside the box when designing your dream team and ideal practice. If you have access to a Lean expert, work collaboratively to identify opportunities for greater efficiency in the current and newly designed processes. If certain aspects of your current workflow function well, feel free to incorporate them into your future state! Try not to limit yourself; consider how an already great process can be made better.

    1. A
      Effective pre-visit activities

    Ensuring that your patients and team are prepared for patient visits is one of the cornerstones of team-based care. Pre-visit planning activities can be completed by a designated nurse, MA or other team member. Some offices focus pre-visit planning efforts on the more complex patients or chronic care patients. Using a registry can streamline this work by making it easy to see the gaps in care or missing elements of critical clinical information.

  • What can increased efficiency do for my practice?

    Increased efficiency can result in increased productivity. The physician-led team is able to see more patients during a single clinic session. The increase in patient revenue is usually more than the cost of any additional staff.

    Increased efficiency can also improve quality. When the care team is efficient, the correct routine care happens naturally. In addition, the physician can focus more of his/her efforts on listening deeply to the patient, making accurate diagnoses, creating treatment plans consistent with the patient’s preferences and communicating with other professionals involved in the patient’s care.

  • What activities should we complete when conducting pre-visit planning?

    Conduct pre-visit planning two to three days prior to the visit.

    • Review notes from the previous visit and ensure that follow-up results (e.g., laboratory test results, x-ray or pathology reports, other provider notes from a referral) are available for physician review
    • Use a registry or visit-prep checklist to identify any care gaps or upcoming preventive and chronic care needs
    • Identify whether any further information is required for the visit (e.g., hospital discharge notes, emergency department notes or operative notes from a recent surgery)
    • Remind patients of their appointments by sending automated (if possible) appointment reminders, including the accurate check-in time and accounting for the additional time it will take to complete any necessary paperwork, such as a pre-appointment questionnaire
    Pre-visit questionnaire Download See all downloadable tools
  • What should we do to complete pre-visit laboratory testing?

    Order pre-visit labs at the end of each appointment to be completed prior to the next appointment using a visit planner checklist. Providers can review results with the patient in person. This saves time and allows the care team to discuss progress and/or interventions with the patient.

    Visit planner checklist Download See all downloadable tools
  • Is it important that we start the day or session with a team huddle?

    Prepare the team by reviewing the day’s schedule during a five to 15 minute team huddle. The huddle should include the extended care team, such as registration or check-in staff, the physician, nurses, MAs, behavioral health specialist, care manager and health educator, as appropriate. The team can discuss important items that are pertinent to all team members to sustain the greatest efficiency and cohesion throughout the clinic day and to make sure that resources are allocated where the anticipated need will be. For example, the team may discuss who is covering for a team member who is sick and for another who will be out in the afternoon. They can make sure that the procedure room will be set up for the 10:00 a.m. appointment where the patient will need an endometrial biopsy. The huddle should involve and engage all members of the team.

  1. Pre-visit planning activities and huddles prepare the clinic team and shift the model from one that is reactive, in which the team feels as though they are playing catch-up, to one that is proactive, in which the team anticipates, coordinates and delivers the best patient care. It also involves the care team and engages them in their enhanced roles that are essential to the delivery of patient care.

    1. B
      The team-based patient visit

    The nurse or MA manages the first component of the visit, including updating the medical record, closing care gaps and obtaining an initial history. When the physician joins the appointment, the nurse, MA or documentation specialist helps document the visit. At the end of the visit, the team member emphasizes the plan of care with the patient and conducts motivational interviewing and education as appropriate. The nurses and/or MAs become more knowledgeable about the treatment plan, can more effectively coordinate care between visits and develop closer independent relationships with patients and their families.

  • What are some of the expanded rooming activities that the team could do?

    In expanded rooming, the nurse or MA is empowered to:

    • Reconcile medications
    • Update medical, family and social history
    • Provide immunizations
    • Screen for conditions based on practice protocols
    • Identify the reason for the visit and help the patient set the visit agenda
    • Arrange preventive services based on standing orders
    • Assemble medical equipment or supplies prior to the visit
    • Hand off the patient to the physician
      • The nurse or MA quickly briefs the physician with the patient’s visit objective, goals and any other pertinent information
  • How does team documentation work?

    In team documentation, either a clinical person (nurse or MA) or trained clerical person documents, or “scribes,” the visit. There are benefits to both approaches:

    • The MA or nurse is able to remain with the patient throughout the visit, conducting rooming activities before the visit, documenting the visit while the physician is in the room and reemphasizing and educating the patient at the end of the visit. He or she is able to provide real continuity for the patient, building trust between the patient and care team. Between visits, the same team member is also well prepared to answer any questions from the patient that may arise. This approach enhances the nurse’s or MA’s relationship with each patient.
    • The primary responsibility of the clerical documentation specialist is to shadow the physician and document all patient visits, enabling the physician to connect with his or her patients. In some practices, documentation specialists may have additional responsibilities, such as care coordination and scheduling follow-up appointments.
  • How can we use the annual visit to synchronize prescription renewals?

    At an annual visit, the physician can indicate which chronic medications may be refilled for the entire upcoming year (or the maximum duration allowed by state law), and which, if any, to modify or discontinue. This can reduce the number of calls and amount of work associated with more frequent renewal requests. Of course, the team can provide refills upon request based on protocols.

  • When should planning for the next visit start?

    Planning should occur at the conclusion of the current visit. A visit planner checklist or an equivalent electronic checklist can help by clarifying the upcoming appointments and the corresponding laboratory and diagnostic work that should be completed prior to those visits, including the next annual comprehensive care visit.

    Visit planner checklist Download See all downloadable tools
  1. When the physician portion of the visit is complete, he or she can exit the room, review the notes, make any modifications and sign the note. The physician is then ready to transition to the next patient’s room.

  1. The patient should leave the visit with a sense of commitment and support from the clinic staff.

  • How many people does it take to carry out all of these responsibilities?

    Every practice is different. In one practice, team-based care is most effective with two MAs per physician. Another utilizes three RNs per physician. Practices develop varied extended care-team compositions as well. Some practices delegate pre-visit planning activities to panel managers or other care coordinators.

  • Doesn’t Meaningful Use Stage 2 (MU2) require that only the doctor enter the orders?

    No. According to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, “Any licensed healthcare professionals and credentialed medical assistants can enter orders into the medical record for purposes of including the order in the numerator for the objective of CPOE [computerized order entry] if they can originate the order per state, local and professional guidelines. Credentialing for a medical assistant must come from an organization other than the organization employing the medical assistant.” For more information, please visit the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services website regarding MU2 requirements.2

  1. 4

    Increase communication among the team, practice and patients

    Start by keeping the practice aware of the change team’s pilot work. Physicians and staff may feel out of the loop and disengage if they are not involved.

  1. Communicate the change team’s work to your patients as well. You may want to draft a letter announcing this exciting transition so patients know what to expect, incorporate information about the change into a personalized pre-visit phone call or simply let patients know of the changes during the rooming process. Pamphlets in the waiting and exam rooms could also be used to remind patients of the changes before their visit begins.

  • What should we communicate to our patients about team-based care?

    When communicating to patients, share some of these important details:

    • Patients can expect that the entire team will take ownership for them. The practice will refer to them as “our patient.”
    • Patients will be asked to come into the office before their appointment to have their pre-visit labs drawn. Explain to patients that this will allow their physician the opportunity to discuss results and any changes to care during their visit.
    • Their physician will be more connected with them during their visits. The physician will no longer sit at the computer during the visit; they will sit next to the patient and have a discussion about their needs and care plan.
    • Patients can expect to be joined by another team member during visits. Let patients know that having another pair of ears in the room will ensure that all of their concerns are noted and as a result, their care will be more thorough.
    • Assure patients that if they have privacy concerns, other team members can leave the room when the physician enters.
    • Solicit patient feedback. Add a question to your current patient survey about the care received in the new model, or create a brief survey specifically for patients who received care from the pilot team so you can determine how the patients perceive the care they are receiving.
  1. 5

    Use a gradual approach to implement the model

    Team-based care implementation will be a gradual process. It will take time, and every day will not be perfect. Be patient; know that several months may go by before the team feels like they are really gelling in their new system.

    One physician who has implemented team-based care recommends that physicians who are considering implementation make sure that they are completely committed because it is not easy. He followed up with, “I cannot imagine practicing any other way.”

    Use a gradual approach

An MA who works in a team-based care model said that it took her about two months to feel like she was really getting the hang of documenting patient visits for her physician. She worked very closely with him as he taught her his preferences and showed her how he edited every single patient note. This type of time commitment is necessary to successfully implement team-based care. As the model expands, an experienced MA can mentor or assist with training a new MA.

  1. 6

    Optimize the team-based care model

    1. A
      Co-location

    Teams that sit in closer proximity communicate with greater frequency and ease. Questions can rapidly be answered, reducing the time that someone may have to wait before completing a task or responding to a patient. Everyone will be aware of the work that their teammates are doing, enabling easier task-sharing and division of work. Finally, after a busy clinic day, your inbox will not be filled with messages that could have quickly been triaged by another team member during the day.

    1. B
      Inbox management

    In a team-based care model, the number of inbox messages that are sent to the team should decrease for several reasons.

    • Lab results are discussed during the visit, so the number of messages sent back and forth to discuss results or set up a call is significantly reduced.
    • Patients receive additional education at the conclusion of their visit, resulting in fewer questions after the visit.
    • Care coordination is enhanced. Patients will leave with their follow-up appointments, corresponding labs and diagnostics scheduled, so they should have fewer requests after leaving the office.
    • Referrals to supportive services such as behavioral health or to a health educator can be made during the visit. Involving additional team members in a patient’s care provides them with a point of contact for follow-up questions regarding these specific services.

    Of the questions that do come into the office, the physician’s team should be able to handle most of them. The physician may delegate most questions and concerns to the nurses or MAs who work with him or her. Their knowledge of each patient’s case will be much greater in a team-based care model, and they will be able to answer most questions according to what was said during the visit or the plan of care that was determined. They will also build their skillset over time, further engaging them in this critical work.

Enable the team to share the responsibility of patient care #STEPSforward

Learn more about team-based care

Consider role flexibility

Create a culture that is patient-centric rather than task-oriented. The practice culture is one where everyone works together to care for patients; you would never hear someone say, “That’s not my job,” when a patient needed them. The MAs on the doctor’s team may share responsibilities between rooming and answering calls and inbox messages, flexing to cover where patients need them most throughout the day.

+ More

Create time for new responsibilities

Work with the physicians and staff to remove less critical activities and waste. Expecting valued workers to add even more to a full plate could lead to dissatisfaction or burnout. See the STEPS Forward™ Lean module for more information.

+ More

Conclusion

In the team-based care model, patient-care responsibilities are shared among members of a team, which enables physicians and staff to better connect with their patients. Quality, efficiency and productivity should increase, and taking care of patients should become fun again. The whole team is able to provide care to patients, changing the practice culture from one that refers to “my patient” to one that shares “our patient” in this powerful practice model.

Adopting telemedicine in practice conclusion

Provide us with feedback to complete the module!

See our Privacy Policy.

Explore other modules Browse modules

Get implementation support

Please contact the AMA to learn about available resources.

Call us at (800) 987‑1106 or send us a message.

Help us improve

Have you implemented innovative strategies to transform your practice and want to suggest a module?
Contact us.

Request an event

Interested in hosting a CME-accredited AMA event?
Contact us.

References

  1. Bodenheimer T, Bauer L, Olayiwola JN, Syer S. RN Role Reimagined: How Empowering Registered Nurses Can Improve Primary Care. http://www.chcf.org/publications/2015/08/rn-role-reimagined. Accessed August 12, 2015.
  2. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Stage 2 Eligible Professional Meaningful Use Core Measures: Measure 1 of 17. https://www.cms.gov/Regulations-and-Guidance/Legislation/EHRIncentivePrograms/downloads/Stage2_EPCore_1_CPOE_MedicationOrders.pdf. Published October 2012. Accessed September 14, 2015.

Building team culture references

  1. Mundt MP, Gilchrist VJ, Fleming MF, Zakletskaia LI, Tuan W-J. Effects of primary care team social networks on quality of care and costs for patients with cardiovascular disease. Ann Fam Med. 2015;13(2):139-148.
  2. Woolley AW, Chabris CF, Pentland A, Hashmi N, Malone TW. Evidence for a collective intelligence factor in the performance of human groups. Science. 2010;330(6004):686-688.
  3. Logan D, King J, Fischer-Wright H. Tribal Leadership: Leveraging Natural Groups to Build a Thriving Organization. New York, NY: HarperBusiness; 2011.
  4. Hochman M. Improvement happens: team-based primary care, an interview with Stuart Pollack. J Gen Int Med. 2015;30(4):521-528.
  5. The Team Development Measure. PeaceHealth website.http://www.peacehealth.org/about-peacehealth/medical-professionals/eugene-springfield-cottage-grove/team-measure/Pages/measure.aspx. Accessed April 17, 2015.
  6. US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture. http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/quality-patient-safety/patientsafetyculture/medical-office/index.html. Published February 2015. Accessed April 17, 2015.
  7. Newbell B, Schafer D, Pfenninger JL, et al. 10 big ideas that could make your practice better. Fam Pract Manag. 2008;15(8):33-41.
  8. Icebreakers: the best games & activities. Icebreakers website. http://www.icebreakers.ws/. Accessed April 17, 2015.
  9. Institute for Patient- and Family-Centered Care. Creating Patient and Family Advisory Councils. http://www.ipfcc.org/advance/Advisory_Councils.pdf. Published 1998. Updated 2002. Accessed April 17, 2015.
  10. Toussaint J. A management leadership and board road map to transforming care for patients. Front Health Serv Manage. 2013;29(3):3-15.
  11. Truly human leadership: Bob Chapman at TEDxScottAFB [video]. Illinois: TedxScottAFB; May 30, 2012. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=njn-lIEv1LU. Accessed April 17, 2015.
  12. Nutting PA, Crabtree BF, Miller WL, Stange KC, Stewart E, Jaén C. Transforming physician practices to patient-centered medical homes: lessons from the National Demonstration Project. Health Aff (Millwood). 2011;30(3):439-445.
  13. Woolley M, Malone TW, Chabris CF. Why some teams are smarter than others. The New York Times. January 16, 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/18/opinion/sunday/why-some-teams-are-smarter-than-others.html. Accessed April 17, 2015.

Expanded rooming and discharge protocols references

  1. Anderson P, Halley MD. A new approach to making your doctor-nurse team more productive. Fam Pract Manag. 2008;15(7):35-40.
  2. Blash L, Dower C, Chapman S. High Plains Community Health Center—Redesign Expands Medical Assistant Roles. San Francisco, CA: Center for the Health Professions at the University of California, San Francisco; 2010. Revised November 2011. https://healthforce.ucsf.edu/sites/healthforce.ucsf.edu/files/publication-pdf/8.1%202010-11_High_Plains_Community_Health_Center_Redesign_Expands_Medical_Assistant_Roles.pdf. Accessed April 2, 2014.
  3. Bodenheimer T, Laing BY. The teamlet model of primary care. Ann Fam Med. 2007;5(5):457-461.
  4. Bodenheimer T, Willard-Grace R, Ghorob A. Expanding the roles of medical assistants: who does what in primary care? JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(7):1025-1026.
  5. Herzberg F. One more time: how do you motivate employees? Harvard Business Review. January 2003. https://hbr.org/2003/01/one-more-time-how-do-you-motivate-employees. Accessed April 2, 2014.
  6. McCarthy BD, Yood MU, Bolton MB, Boohaker EA, MacWilliam CH, Young MJ. Redesigning primary care processes to improve the offering of mammography. The use of clinical protocols by nonphysicians. J Gen Intern Med. 1997;12(6):357-363.
  7. Patel MS, Arron MJ, Sinsky TA, et al. Estimating the staffing infrastructure for a patient-centered medical home. Am J Manag Care. 2013;19(6):509-516.
  8. Sinsky CA, Sinsky TA, Althaus D, Tranel J, Thiltgen M. 'Core teams': nurse-physician partnerships provide patient-centered care at an Iowa practice. Health Aff. 2010;29(5):966-968.
  9. Sinsky CA, Willard-Grace R, Schutzbank AM, Sinsky TA, Margolius D, Bodenheimer T. In search of joy in practice: a report of 23 high-functioning primary care practices. Ann Fam Med. 2013;11(3):272-278.
  10. Yarnall KS, Østbye T, Krause KM, Pollak KI, Gradison M, Michener JL. Family physicians as team leaders: “time” to share the care. Prev Chronic Dis. 2009;6(2):A59.
  11. Elevating the Role of the Medical/Clinical Assistant: Maximizing Team-Based Care in the Patient-Centered Medical Home. Seattle, WA: Safety Net Medical Home Initiative, a project of The Commonwealth Fund, Qualis Health and MacColl Institute at the Group Health Cooperative; August 2011. http://www.mainequalitycounts.org/image_upload/PCMH Pilot Expansion Launch_Elevating The Role Of The Medical and Clinical Assistant_Safety Net Medical Home Initiative_2011.pdf. Accessed April 2, 2014.

Pre-visit laboratory testing references

  1. Baron R. What's keeping us so busy in primary care? A snapshot from one practice. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:495-496.
  2. Crocker B, Lewandrowski EL, Lewandrowski N, Gregory K, Lewandrowski K. Patient satisfaction with point-of-care laboratory testing: report of a quality improvement program in an ambulatory practice of an academic medical center. Clin Chim Acta. 2013;424:8-11.
  3. Crocker JB, Lee-Lewandrowski E, Lewandrowski N, Baron J, Gregory K, Lewandrowski K. Implementation of point-of-care testing in an ambulatory practice of an academic medical center. Am J Clin Pathol. 2014;14(5):640-646.
  4. Casalino L, Nicholson S, Gans DN, et al. What does it cost physician practices to interact with health insurance plans? Health Aff. 2009;28(4):533-543.
  5. Day J, Scammon DL, Kim J, et al. Quality, satisfaction and financial efficiency associated with elements of primary care practice transformation: preliminary findings. Ann Fam Med. 2013;11(suppl 1):S50-S59.
  6. Farber J, Siu A, Bloom P. How much time do physicians spend providing care outside of office visits? Ann Intern Med. 2007;147:693-698.
  7. Gottschalk A, Flocke SA. Time spent in face-to-face patient care and work outside the examination room. Ann Fam Med. 2005;3(6): 488-493.
  8. Hunt VL, Chaudhry R, Stroebel RJ, North F. Does pre-ordering tests enhance the value of the periodic examination? Study design – Process implementation with retrospective chart review. BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11:216.
  9. Kabcenell AI, Langley J, Hupke C. Innovations in Planned Care. IHI Innovation Series white paper. Cambridge, MA: Institute for Healthcare Improvement; 2006. http://www.ihi.org/knowledge/Pages/IHIWhitePapers/InnovationsinPlannedCareWhitePaper.aspx. Accessed May 15, 2014.
  10. McAllister JW, Cooley WC, Van Cleave J, Boudreau AA, Kuhlthau K. Medical home transformation in pediatric primary care–what drives change? Ann Fam Med. 2013;11 (suppl 1):S90-S98.
  11. Montori VM, Dinneen SF, Gorman CA, et al; and Translation Project Investigator Group. The impact of planned care and a diabetes electronic management system on community-based diabetes care: the Mayo Health System Diabetes Translation Project. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(11):1952–1957.
  12. Moore LG. Escaping the tyranny of the urgent by delivering planned care. Fam Pract Manag. 2006;13(5):37-40.
  13. Schiff GD. Medical error: a 60-year-old man with delayed care for a renal mass. JAMA. 2011;305(18):1890-1898.
  14. Sinsky CA, Willard-Grace R, Schuztbank AM, Sinsky TA, Margolius D, Bodenheimer T. In search of joy in practice: a report of 23 high-functioning primary care practices. Ann Fam Med. 2013;11(3):272-278.
  15. Stone EG, Morton SC, Hulscher ME, et al. Interventions that increase use of adult immunization and cancer screening services: a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136(9):641-651.

Pre-visit planning references

  1. Baron R. What's keeping us so busy in primary care? A snapshot from one practice. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:495-496.
  2. Casalino L, Nicholson S, Gans DN, et al. What does it cost physician practices to interact with health insurance plans? Health Aff. 2009;28(4):533-543.
  3. Day J, Scammon DL, Kim J, et al. Quality, satisfaction and financial efficiency associated with elements of primary care practice transformation: preliminary findings. Ann Fam Med. 2013;11(suppl 1):S50-S59.
  4. Farber J, Siu A, Bloom P. How much time do physicians spend providing care outside of office visits? Ann Intern Med. 2007;147:693-698.
  5. Gottschalk A, Flocke SA. Time spent in face-to-face patient care and work outside the examination room. Ann Fam Med. 2005;3(6):488-493.
  6. Hunt VL, Chaudhry R, Stroebel RJ, North F. Does pre-ordering tests enhance the value of the periodic examination? Study design – Process implementation with retrospective chart review. BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11:216.
  7. Kabcenell AI, Langley J, Hupke C. Innovations in Planned Care. IHI Innovation Series white paper. Cambridge, MA: Institute for Healthcare Improvement; 2006. http://www.ihi.org/knowledge/Pages/IHIWhitePapers/InnovationsinPlannedCareWhitePaper.aspx. Accessed May 15, 2014.
  8. McAllister JW, Cooley WC, Van Cleave J, Boudreau AA, Kuhlthau K. Medical home transformation in pediatric primary care–what drives change? Ann Fam Med. 2013;11 (suppl 1):S90-S98.
  9. Montori VM, Dinneen SF, Gorman CA, et al; and Translation Project Investigator Group. The impact of planned care and a diabetes electronic management system on community-based diabetes care: the Mayo Health System Diabetes Translation Project. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(11):1952-1957.
  10. Moore LG. Escaping the tyranny of the urgent by delivering planned care. Fam Pract Manag. 2006;13(5):37-40.
  11. Sinsky CA, Willard-Grace R, Schuztbank AM, Sinsky TA, Margolius D, Bodenheimer T. In search of joy in practice: a report of 23 high-functioning primary care practices. Ann Fam Med. 2013;11(3):272-278.
  12. Stone EG, Morton SC, Hulscher ME, et al. Interventions that increase use of adult immunization and cancer screening services: a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136(9):641-651.
  13. Crocker B, Lewandrowski EL, Lewandrowski N, Gregory K, Lewandrowski K. Patient satisfaction with point-of-care laboratory testing: report of a quality improvement program in an ambulatory practice of an academic medical center. Clin Chim Acta. 2013;424:8-11.
  14. Crocker JB, Lee-Lewandrowski E, Lewandrowski N, Baron J, Gregory K, Lewandrowski K. Implementation of point-of-care testing in an ambulatory practice of an academic medical center. Am J Clin Path. 2014;142(5):640-646.

Synchronized prescription renewals references

  1. Baron R. What is keeping us busy in primary care? A snapshot from one practice. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:495-496.
  2. Choundry NK, Fischer MA, Avorn J, et al. The implications of therapeutic complexity on adherence to cardiovascular medications. Arch Intern Med. 2011;171(9): 814-822.
  3. Devine EB, Hollingworth W, Hansen RN, et al. Electronic prescribing at the point of care: a time–motion study in the primary care setting. Health Serv Res. 2010;45(1):152-171.
  4. Foster DG, Hulett D, Bradsberry M, Darney P, Policar M. Number of oral contraceptive pill packages dispensed and subsequent unintended pregnancies. Obstet Gynec. 2011;117(3):566-572.
  5. Sinsky CA, Sinsky TA. Bundling prescription refills. Fam Pract Manag. 2013;20(1):9-10.
  6. Friedberg M, Chen P, Van Busum KR, et al. Factors affecting physician professional satisfaction and their implications for patient care, health systems, and health policy. Washington, DC: RAND Corporation; 2013. http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR400/RR439/RAND_RR439.pdf. Accessed April 2, 2014.
  7. Murphy DR, Reis B, Kadiyala H, et al. Electronic health record-based messages to primary care providers: valuable information or just noise? Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(3):283-285.
  8. Sinsky TA, Sinsky CA. A streamlined approach to prescription management. Fam Pract Manag. 2012;19(6):11-15.
  9. Wieczner J. The doctor won't take your call. Marketwatch. July 16, 2013. http://www.marketwatch.com/story/the-doctor-wont-take-your-call-2013-07-16. Accessed April 2, 2014.

Team documentation reference

  1. Ammann Howard K, Helé K, Salibi N, Wilcox S, Cohen M. Adapting EHR Scribe Model to Community Health Centers: The Experience of Shasta Community Health Center's Pilot. Berkley, CA: Blueshield of California Foundation; 2012. http://www.blueshieldcafoundation.org/publications/adapting-ehr-scribe-model-community-health-centers-experience-shasta-community-health-c. Accessed April 2, 2014.
  2. Anderson P, Halley MD. A new approach to making your doctor-nurse team more productive. Fam Pract Manag. 2008;15(7):35-40.
  3. Anderson P. What is team care medicine? [video]. Yorktown, VA: Team Care Medicine, LLC; August 20, 2013. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1dPNn2OUuaA. Accessed April 2, 2014.
  4. Arya R, Salovich DM, Ohman-Strickland P, Merlin MA. Impact of scribes on performance indicators in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2010;17(5):490-494.
  5. Bank AJ, Obetz C, Konrardy A, et al. Impact of scribes on patient interaction, productivity, and revenue in a cardiology clinic: a prospective study. ClinicoEcon Outcomes Res. 2013;5:399-406.
  6. Center for Excellence in Primary Care. Health Coaching website. http://cepc.ucsf.edu/health-coaching. Accessed April 2, 2014.
  7. Hafner K. A busy doctor's right hand, ever ready to type. The New York Times. January 12, 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/14/health/a-busy-doctors-right-hand-ever-ready-to-type.html?ref=katiehafner&_r=0. Accessed April 2, 2014
  8. Koshy S, Feustel PJ, Hong M, Kogan BA. Scribes in an ambulatory urology practice: patient and physician satisfaction. J Urol. 2010;184(1):258-262.
  9. Reuben DB, Knudsen J, Senelick W, Glazier E, Koretz BK. The effect of a physician partner program on physician efficiency and patient satisfaction. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(7):1190-1193.
  10. Sinsky CA, Sinsky TA. In search of Joy in practice: innovations from 23 high-performing primary care practices [video]. Washington, DC: Patient-Centered Primary Care Collaborative; June 28, 2013. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tKVl74Al_I0. Accessed April 2, 2014.
  11. Sinsky CA, Willard-Grace R, Schutzbank AM, Sinsky TA, Margolius D, Bodenheimer T. In search of joy in practice: a report of 23 high-functioning primary care practices. Ann Fam Med. 2013;11(3):272-278.
  12. Sinsky CA, Sinsky TA. Care by Design. Redstone Clinic Case Study. 2011.
  13. Sinsky CA. Office of the Future. Quincy Family Practice Case Study. 2011.
  14. Sinsky TA. Improving Access, Quality and Satisfaction With “Turbo Practice.” Cleveland Clinic Case Study.
  15. Sinsky TA. Reconnecting With Patients Through Scribing. Allina Clinics Case Study. 2011.
  16. Sinsky TA. The Family Team Care model. Newport News Family Practice Case Study. 2011.
  17. Team Care Medicine v1 [video]. California: Sutter North Medical Foundation; November 4, 2013. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oBxHCkxnpgk. Accessed April 2, 2014.
  18. Hopkins K, Sinsky CA. Team-based care: saving time and improving efficiency. Fam Pract Manag. 2014;21(6):23-29.

Team huddles references

  1. Rodriguez HP, Meredith LS, Hamilton AB, Yano EM, Rubenstein LV. Huddle up!: the adoption and use of structured team communication for VA medical home implementation. Health Care Manage Rev. 2014 Jul 15. [Epub ahead of print].
  2. Helfrich CD, Dolan ED, Simonetti J, et al. Elements of team-based care in a patient-centered medical home are associated with lower burnout among VA primary care employees. J Gen Intern Med. 2014;29(Suppl 2):S659-S666.
  3. Provost SM, Lanham HJ, Leykum LK, McDaniel RR Jr, Pugh J. Health care huddles: managing complexity to achieve high reliability. Health Care Manage Rev. 2015;40(1):2-12.
  4. Shunk R, Dulay M, Chou CL, Janson S, O'Brien BC. Huddle-coaching: a dynamic intervention for trainees and staff to support team-based care. Acad Med. 2014;89(2):244-250.
  5. Dingley C, Daugherty K, Derieg MK, Persing R. Improving patient safety through provider communication strategy enhancements. In: Henriksen K, Battles JB, Keyes MA, Grady ML, eds. Advances in Patient Safety: New Directions and Alternative Approaches, Vol. 3: Performance and Tools. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2008.
  6. Fogarty CT, Schultz S. Team huddles: the role of the primary care educator. Clin Teach. 2010;7(3):157-160.
  7. Stewart EE, Johnson BC. Huddles: improve office efficiency in mere minutes. Fam Pract Manag. 2007;14(6):27-29.
  8. Stout S, Klucznik C, Chevalier A, et al; Cambridge Health Alliance Team-Based Care Leadership Team. Implementation Guide and Toolkit. http://www.safetynetmedicalhome.org/sites/default/files/CHA-Teams-Guide.pdf. Accessed July 11, 2015.
  9. Kaiser Permanante. Huddle Power. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vvEiGPEFBLE. Accessed July 11, 2015.
  10. UC Davis Health System Team Huddles Patient Experience Model. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VxdG2_nZ2fc. Accessed July 11, 2015.
  11. Schutzbank A. Martin's Point Health Care, Evergreen Woods Practice, Bangor ME. http://www.abimfoundation.org/~/media/Foundation/Initiatives/Primary%20Care/Martins%20Point.ashx?la=en. Accessed July 11, 2015.
  12. UCSF Center for Excellence in Primary Care. Spotlight on Huddles. http://cepc.ucsf.edu/sites/cepc.ucsf.edu/files/Spotlight_on_Huddles_12-1226.pdf. Published June 5, 2012. Accessed July 11, 2015.
  13. UCSF Center for Excellence in Primary Care. Healthy Huddles. http://cepc.ucsf.edu/healthy-huddles. Accessed July 11, 2015.

Team meetings references

  1. Trustees of Dartmouth College, Godfrey MM, Nelson EC, Batalden PB, Institute for Healthcare Improvement. Clinical microsystems: the place where patients, families and clinical teams meet. http://clinicalmicrosystem.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/outpatient-primary-care-workbook.doc. Published 2001. Accessed March 5, 2015.
  2. Chase SM, Nutting PA, Crabtree BF. How to solve problems in your practice with a new meeting approach. Fam Pract Manag. 2010;17(2):31-34.
  3. Stewart EE, Johnson BC. Improve office efficiency in mere minutes. Fam Pract Manag. 2007;14(6):27-29.
  4. Team meetings in a clinical environment [video]. Oakland, CA: California Healthcare Foundation; June 2009. http://www.chcf.org/publications/2009/06/video-on-team-meetings-in-a-clinical-environment. Accessed March 5, 2015.
  5. Best practice clinical innovation: team huddle communications and pre-visit team planning [video]. University of California, Davis Health System: Center for Health and Technology; 2010. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VxdG2_nZ2fc. Accessed March 5, 2015.
  6. Shenkel R. How to make your meetings more productive. Fam Pract Manag. 2003;10(7):59-60.
  7. Sinsky CA, Willard-Grace R, Schutzbank AM, Sinsky TA, Margolius D, Bodenheimer T. In search of joy in practice: a report of twenty-three high-functioning primary care practices. Ann Fam Med. 2013;11(3):272-278.
  8. Sinsky CA, Sinsky TA, Althaus D, Tranel J, Thiltgen M. 'Core teams': nurse-physician partnerships provide patient-centered care at an Iowa practice. Health Aff. 2010;29(5):966-968.
  9. Lencioni P. Overcoming the Five Dysfunctions of Teams: A Field Guide for Leaders, Managers, and Facilitators, 1st ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2005.
  10. Stout S, Klucznick C, Chevalier A, et al.; for the Cambridge Health Alliance Team-Based Care Leadership Team. Cambridge Health Alliance Model of Team-Based Care Implementation Guide and Toolkit. http://www.safetynetmedicalhome.org/sites/default/files/CHA-Teams-Guide.pdf. Accessed March 5, 2015.
  11. Lind C, Redditt V, Satterstrom P, et al. Cambridge Health Alliance Practice Improvement Team (PIT) Development Toolkit. http://www.improvingprimarycare.org/sites/default/files/topics/Team-Step6-Cambridge-Practice%20Improvement%20Team-Toolkit.pdf. Accessed March 5, 2015.
  12. Funk K and Davis M. Enhancing the role of the nurse in primary care: the RN "co-visit" model. J Gen Intern Med. 2015;30(12):1871-1873.

STEPS in practice

Case 1

How's it working in Kaukauna, WI?

Michael T. Werner, MD, is a family physician with a small independent practice in Kaukauna, WI. After recently implementing a team care model for his practice, he has seen more patients, achieved higher quality scores and has eight to ten hours more free time each week to spend with his family.

Dr. Werner’s practice had been following a traditional care model for seven years. One day, he read a letter written by his seven-year-old daughter and was saddened to find that she wondered why he wasn’t home very much. In speaking with his group, he discovered that other physicians and their families were experiencing the same frustration, and they were interested in pursuing a team care approach to improve office efficiency.  

Dr. Werner’s practice began the team care approach by assigning three team care assistants (TCAs) to support each physician: two registered nurses (RNs) and one certified medical assistant (MA). Initially the practice tried to implement the model with just two RNs per physician, but they found that it was difficult to keep up with the work load. Therefore, each of the three physicians in the practice who use the team-based care model hired an additional staff member to form their TCA team.

The TCAs are now an integral part of the practice and provide continuity for patients during their visits. During rooming, the TCA collects patient information. When the physician enters the exam room, the TCA synthesizes this information so the most pertinent details are presented. The TCA then stays in the room to act as a scribe. When the physician portion of the visit is complete, the TCA assists in the discharge process and makes sure that the patient understands the doctor’s recommendations.

Dr. Werner reported, “At first the TCAs were nervous about using question sets and then reporting data to me in front of patients. They were also worried about documenting the visit. It  didn’t take long for them to see the positive impact it was having both on my side and on the patients’ side. They are now much more comfortable with the process and their role in patient care. They are an integral part of the patient’s experience with our practice.”

The team care model took approximately two months to get off the ground, but once it was established, patient visits became more efficient and the computer less of a distraction during patient interactions. Dr. Werner now spends less time searching for old notes or records because the TCA has already pulled up relevant files for him. In addition, this approach alleviates pressure to take notes during the visit or dictate later. Between-visit care has also improved. With the expanded team, patient calls are returned promptly and between-visit concerns are addressed in a more timely fashion. Fewer questions require Dr. Werner’s direct input because his TCAs can answer most patient inquiries.

As their comfort with the new team-based process has grown, the TCAs have started taking an increasingly proactive role in the practice.  For example, they now review charts the day before visits to prepare for each patient’s arrival. During the pre-clinic huddle each day, they give a report on why a patient is coming in, what health maintenance needs should be brought up during the visit and whether any labs, immunizations or additional screening is anticipated. This has greatly improved the office’s efficiency.

The main challenge encountered during implementation was documenting visits in real time in the electronic health record (EHR). To address the EHR challenges, Dr. Werner and his colleagues created modifications in the form of “dot phrases” or “smart phrases” that were shorthand for commonly used documentation. Once these were developed, the process became more fluid and efficient because the TCAs were able to work more quickly and consistently.

Dr. Werner is very pleased with the results. “I have seen 235 more patients in the first six months since implementation. For me, this is equivalent to approximately four additional weeks of patient care. I have done more, billed more, dictated less, and have more face time with my patients. And, my family gets to see me!” Dr. Werner and his team are constantly refining their model, but they continue to see improvements in the clinic’s bottom line while improving quality of care with more appropriate use of staff in a team care environment.

Reference
Team Care Medicine. http://www.teamcaremedicine.com/. Accessed November 1, 2015.

+ More

Case 2

How's it working in Elyria, OH?

North Ohio Heart has followed an efficient, team-based care approach for more than 20 years. With an established staff the clinic’s team functions like a well-oiled machine with the more than 20 cardiologists often seeing upwards of 55 patients a day each. As more quality improvement (QI) efforts came into play and with the recent merger between the cardiology clinic and a primary care group, North Ohio Heart found they needed to adapt their team-based care approach across multiple sites. In the cardiology setting, there are two LPNs and one MA assigned to each physician. In primary care there is one LPN and one MA per physician.

Quality improvement (QI) placed more pressure on the clinic to address every measure, which increased rooming time. For example, additional time was required to perform hypertensive measures and have conversations about Pneumovax with anyone over age 65. These tasks could be shifted from the physician to the nurse, but as the nurse’s plate became fuller they realized that the staffing model needed to change.

Medical assistants began to take on some of the rooming duties that nurses usually performed, such as gathering information on immunizations and labs, updating the patient record and reconciling medications to capture QI and Meaningful Use measures. This shifted the workflow so that nurses now entered the room with the physician and took over the computer to prompt the doctor with pertinent patient information. Nurses still handled after-visit responsibilities, including instructions, education and the clinical summary. Team meetings were critical for determining who on the team would take on a new task.

To accommodate the new workflow, North Ohio Heart has had to hire additional MAs. These MAs receive ongoing training so that they could be flexible and take on new responsibilities as the practice required. Training is implemented as soon as the MA is hired and covers topics that directly relate to the practice’s quality measures. Every office has a clinical trainer who meets with the team on a monthly basis to assess performance and discuss training needs, as well as performs competency checks. The trainers share ideas across sites for consistency. The practice manager held regular meetings to get input on how to improve the approach and then huddled with the doctors and staff to implement changes. These conversations are key to the success of team-based care.

One challenge with the new workflow was keeping the registration team updated on new or different steps. As a result, they initially did not always ask patients the right questions or enter information in the correct places in the EHR. This has since been fixed, but it took some time for the team to become comfortable with the new approach. Metrics are now tracked using reports from the EHR.

The practice manager at North Ohio Heart is always thinking about ways to increase employee and patient satisfaction. Communication has helped the team stay positive and also is also helping make the expansion of team-based care into the primary care setting successful. The practice’s patients are now more involved in their healthcare, asking questions about the clinical summary and overall feel more empowered. Charts are more accurate with a team approach, which patients also appreciate. North Ohio Heart wouldn’t be able to provide excellent care with the volume of patients they see without using team-based care.

+ More

Case 3

How's it working in Palo Alto, CA?

As the health care industry continues to shift towards value-based reimbursement, team-based care has correspondingly increased in popularity. Team-based care allocates responsibilities among the care team to enhance patient care. Additionally, this model enriches value-based elements that are being incorporated into much of the patient care we see today. Stanford Coordinated Care had a team-based care model in place; however, they chose to take it one step further than traditional models.

Stanford Coordinated Care utilizes MA care coordinators to serve as cornerstones in their team-based care model. The MA care coordinators are responsible for their own panel of patients for which they refill medications, perform routine health maintenance and chronic disease monitoring tests, answer initial patient phone calls and emails, scribe patient visits, advise patients on action plans, acquire authorizations and facilitate referrals. All of these activities are completed by standing orders and protocols under the supervision of the physicians they work with.

By shifting the majority of these responsibilities to other team members, physicians are able to utilize their time more efficiently. For example, in many practices, physicians field their own patients’ phones calls and emails. This often distracts physicians from patient care. At Stanford Coordinated Care, MA care coordinators resolve many patient inquiries based on protocol or knowledge of the patient’s case. Out-of-scope correspondence is then forwarded to their nurses, and finally, the physician handles the complex inquiries. This simple task incorporated into the clinic’s team-based care workflow alleviates unnecessary work for physicians, allotting them more time for providing meaningful patient care. While the clinic has been very successful in integrating its new model, one of the most notable accomplishments is their achievement of a Press Ganey® likelihood to recommend score in the 99th percentile for 19 of the last 20 months.

+ More

Tell your story

Have you implemented your own idea and want to share it with the community or suggest a module?


Contact us

Downloadable tools

Go to Resource Library

The tools and resources here can offer implementation support for your practice. You can download and modify them to fit your specific needs.

Complete team-based care toolkit

Access all tools and resources for this module.

Download

(ZIP, 119 MB)

Module Completion

Individual tools

  • Implementing team-based care module

    Download a printable PDF version of this module.

    Download

    PDF, 1,078 KB

    Preview
  • Implementing team-based care PowerPoint

    Use this PowerPoint presentation to review this module with your team.

    Download

    PPT, 117 MB

    Preview
  • Visit prep checklist

    A checklist that allows the clinical team to compile a list of screening and immunization needs to be addressed during the next patient visit.

    Download

    MS WORD, 52 KB

    Preview
  • Visit planner checklist

    A checklist that allows physicians to indicate the need for another appointment and any associated laboratory tests to be completed before the next patient visit.

    Download

    MS WORD, 49 KB

    Preview
  • Pre-visit questionnaire

    Set the agenda for the next patient visit and save time during the clinic session by having patients fill out this questionnaire before their visit.

    Download

    MS WORD, 57 KB

    Preview
  • Rooming checklist

    A checklist of tasks for the clinical support staff to complete before and after the physician component of the visit, to improve care and reduce physician time on routine functions. Modify to meet your practice needs.

    Download

    MS WORD, 37 KB

    Preview
  • Discharge checklist

    A checklist to help create a list of tasks that nurses or MAs should complete after the physician leaves the exam room. Modify to meet your practice needs.

    Download

    MS WORD, 34 KB

    Preview
  • Process map toolkit

    Use this tool to customize a process flow map that fits your practice.

    Download

    PPT, 2,183 KB

    Preview
  • Core Concepts for Team Based Care

    This document provides some core concepts for team-based care.

    Download

    PDF, 165 KB

    Preview
  • Core Principles for Team Based Care

    This document provides some core principles to build the foundation for team-based care.

    Download

    PDF, 210 KB

    Preview

Implementation support

The AMA is committed to helping you implement the solutions presented in this module.

If you would like to learn about available resources for implementing the strategies presented in this module, please call us at (800) 987‑1106 or send us a message.

Implementation Support

Share your story

Let us know what's working and what's not working - how can we help you?

Contact us

Connect with a practice consultant

Adopting new practices can be challenging. Connect with a consultant who can guide your team through implementation.

Find a consultant

Email the module "[Module Title]"

Obtaining CME credits with STEPS Forward

AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™ will be available for the activity. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. In order to claim AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™, you must: 1) view the module in its entirety, 2) successfully complete the quiz by answering 4 out of 5 questions correctly and 3) complete the evaluation.

Already completed this module?

If you have already completed this module, you can claim AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™ or receive a certificate of participation through the AMA Education Center.

Close

Get updates

Sign up to receive notifications when new modules and events are added to this website.

All fields are required